Programming Languages - G

Sample Program

G -

1. "G: A Functional Language with Generic Abstract Data Types", P.A.G. Bailes, Computer Langs 12(2):69-94 (1987).

2. Oregon State U 1988. Combines functional, object-oriented, relational, imperative and logic programming (you name it we got it). "The Multiparadigm Language G", J. Placer, Computer Langs 16:235-258(1991).

Gabriel - Graphical DSP language for simulation and real systems. "A Design Tool for Hardware and Software for Multiprocessor DSP Systems," E.A. Lee, E. Goei, J. Bier & S. Bhattacharya, DSP Systems, Proc ISCAS-89, 1989.

GADS - Picture retrieval language. "Integrated Geographical Databases: The GADS Experience", P.E. Mantey et al, in Database Techniques for Pictorial Applications, A. Blaser ed, pp.193-198.

Gaelic - For automated test programs. Used in military, essentially replaced by ATLAS.

Galaxy - An extensible language in the vein of EL/1 and RCC. "Introduction to the Galaxy Language", Anne F. Beetem et al, IEEE Software 6(3):55-62.

Galileo - "Galileo: A Strongly Typed Interactive Conceptual Language", A. Albano et al, ACM Trans Database Sys 10(2):230-260 (June 1985).

Gambit - A variant of Scheme R3.99 supporting the 'future' construct of Multilisp. Implementation includes compilers for Mac and 680x0 Unix systems. Version: 2.0 //* // info:


1. language for matrices and generation of mathematical programming reports. "GAMMA 3.3 for MPS/MPSX, IBM System:/360", Bonnor & Moore Assocs (Mar 1975).

2. A high-level parallel language. Research Directions in High-Level Parallel Languages, LeMetayer ed, Springer 1992.

GAN - Generating and Analyzing Networks. "GAN - A System for Generating and Analyzing Activity Networks", A. Schurmann, CACM 11(10) (Oct 1968).

GAP - Groups Algorithms and Programming. Johannes Meier, Alice Niemeyer, Werner Nickel, Martin Schonert, Aachen 1988. Symbolic math for computational discrete algebra, especially group theory. "GAP 3.3 Manual, M. Schonert et al, Lehrstuhl D Math, RWTH Aachen, 1993. Designed 1986, implemented 1987, version 2.4 released 1988, version 3.1 released 1992., version for Sun.

GAPLog - General Amalgamated Programming with Logic. LOGPRO group, Linkoping Sweden. Restricted version of constraint logic programming, using S-unification but not restricted to a single domain. "Logic Programs with External Procedures", J. Maluszynski et al, in Logic Programming Languages, Constraints, Functions and Objects, K.R. Apt et al eds, MIT Press 1993.

Gargoyle - For compiler writing. J.V. Garwick, CACM 7(1):16-20, (Jan 1964).

GARP - Graphical language for concurrent programming. "Visual Concurrent Programmint in GARP", S.K. Goering er al, PARLE '89 v.II, LNCS 366, pp.165- 180.

GASP - Graph Algorithm and Software Package. PL/I extension for programming graph algorithms. "GASP - Gprah Algorithm Software Package", S. CHase, TR CS Dept, U Illinois, Dec 1969.

GAT - Generalized Algebraic Translator. Improved version of IT. On IBM 650 RAMAC. Sammet 1969, p.142.

GATE - GAT Extended. Based on IT. Sammet 1969, p.139.

Gauss - Aptech Systems [?]

Gawk - GNU's implementation of a superset of POSIX awk, a pattern scanning and data manipulation language. //


1. General Control Language. A portable job control language. "A General Control Interface for Satellite Systems", R.J. Dakin in Command Languages, C. Unger ed, N-H 1973.

2. Gnu Common Lisp. 1994. Formerly AKCL. (See KCL and AKCL).

G-Code -

1. Johnsson & Augustsson, Chalmers Inst Tech. Intermediate language used by the G-machine, an implementation of graph reduction based on supercombinators. "Efficient Compilation of Lazy Evaluation", T. Johnsson, SIGPLAN Notices 19(6):58-69 (June 1984).

2. A machine-like language for the representation and interpretation of attributed grammars. Used as an intermediate language by the Coco compiler generator. "A Compiler Generator for Microcomputers", P. Rechenberg et al, P-H 1989.

GDPL - Generalized Distributed Programming Language. "GDPL - A Generalized Distributed Programming Language", K. Ng et al, Proc 4th Intl Conf Distrib Comp Sys, IEEE 1984, pp.69-78.

GEA - Graph Extended ALGOL. Extension of ALGOL-60 for graph manipulation, on UNIVAC 1108. "A Language for Treating Graphs", S. Crespi-Reghizzi et al, , CACM 13(5) (May 1970).

GECOM - For the GE-255. Somewhat akin to COBOL with some ALGOL features added. Comprised of ALGOL, COBOL, FRINGE and TABSOL. FRINGE and TABSOL may not have actually been implemented. Sammet 1969, p.329.

Gedanken - John Reynolds, 1970. "GEDANKEN - A Simple Typeless Language Based on the Principle of Completeness and the Reference Concept", J.C. Reynolds, CACM 13(5):308-319 (May 1970).

GEL - Scripting language used in the object-oriented development environment GainMomentum. Mentioned in Structured Rapid Prototyping, 1989 or Object-Oriented Rapid Prototyping, John L. Connell, Yourdon Press 1995.

General Purpose Graphic Language - "A General Purpose Graphic Language", H.E. Kulsrud, CACM 11(4) (Apr 1968).

Gentleman's Portable Coroutine System - Coroutine package in FORTRAN. "A Portable Coroutine System", W.M. Gentleman, Info Proc 71, C.V. Freiman ed, 1972.

GEORGE - Charles Hamblin, 1957. One of the earliest programming languages, stack-oriented, used reverse Polish notation. Implemented on the English Electric DEUCE. "GEORGE: A Semi-Translation Programming Scheme for the DEUCE, Programming and Operations Manual", C. L. Hamblin, U New S Wales (1958). "Computer Languages", C.L. Hamblin, Aust J Sci 20(5):135-139 (Dec 1957) and Aust Comp J 17(4):195-198 (Nov 1985).

GEPURS - Early system on IBM 701. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

Gerald - "Gerald: An Exceptional Lazy Functional Programming Language", A.C. Reeves et al, in Functional Programming, Glasgow 1989, K. Davis et al eds, Springer 1990.

GEST - Generic Expert System Tool. Expert system shell with frames, forward and backward chaining, fuzzy logic. Version 4.0. For Symbolics LISP machines only. info: John Gilmore <>

GHC - Guarded Horn Clauses. K. Ueda. Parallel logic language similar to Parlog. Guards and committed-choice nondeterminism. (See FGHC, KL1).

Gia-2 - Gary's Ikonas Assembler. "Differences Between GIA-2 and C", G. Bishop, TR 82-010, U N Carolina (June 1982).

GIM-1 - Generalized Information Management Language. Nelson, Pick, Andrews. Proc SJCC 29:169-73, AFIPS (Fall 1966).

GIN5 - Special-purpose macro assembler used to build the GEORGE 3 operating system for ICL1900 series machines. A macro could examine the assembly process and possibly modify its further course.

Ginger - U Warwick. Simple functional language with parallel constructs.

GIP - General Interpretive Programme. 1956. An early interpreted language for the English Electric DEUCE, with array operations and an extensive library of numerical methods. "Interpretive and Brick Schemes, with Special Reference to Matrix Operations", English Electric Company, DEUCE News No. 10 (1956).

GIRL - Graph Information Retrieval Language. Handling directed graphs. "Graph Information Retrieval Language", S. Berkowitz, Report 76-0085, Naval Ship Res Dev Center, (Feb 1976).

GKS - Graphical Kernel System.

GL - Graphics Language. Silicon Graphics.

Glammar - A pattern transformation language for text-to-text translation, Used for compiler writing and linguistics.

GLASS - General LAnguage for System Semantics. Esprit project at KU Nijmegen.

Glenda - Seyfarth, Arumugham and Bickam, U South Mississippi. A realization of Linda based on PVM. (See PVM).

Glish - Vern Paxson <>. Language for buiilding loosely coupled distributed systems from modular event-oriented programs. "Glish: A User-Level Software Bus for Loosely Coupled Distributed Systems", V. Paxson et al, Proc 1993 Winter USENIX Conf, Jan 1993.

Glisp - Generalized LISP. D.C. Smith, Aug 1990. A coordinated set of high-level syntaxes for Common LISP. Contains Mlisp, Plisp and ordinary LISP, with an extensible framework for adding others. Written in Plisp.

GLOS - Graphics Language Object System. Dan Johnston> and Brian Hicks <>, U Queensland, St. Lucia 1978. Graphics objects correspond to language statements (e.g. line, circle, polygon etc). New objects defined using procedures. 2-D Transformations are context dependent and may be nested.

GLOW - A POP-11 variant with lexical scope. Reviewed in Byte's UK edition, May 1992, p.84UK-8. Available from Andrew Arnblaster, Bollostraat 6, B- 3140 Keerbergen, Belgium, for Mac or MS-DOS.

Glypnir - 1966. An ALGOL-like language with parallel extensions. Similar to Actus. "GLYPNIR - A Programming Language for the Illiac IV", D.H. Lawrie et al, CACM 18(3) (Mar 1975).

GMAP - GCOS Macro Assembler Program - Macro assembler for the GCOS-8 operating system on Honeywell/Bull DPS-8 machines. "GCOS8 OS GMAP User's Guide", Bull.

GMPL - A microprogramming language for an HP machine. "A Microprogramming Language Directed Architecture", R.M. Guffin, Proc 15th Ann Workshop Microprogramming (MICRO-15), 1982, pp.42-49.

Goedel - Declarative language for AI, based on many-sorted logic. Strongly typed, polymorphic, declarative, with a module system. Supports bignums and sets. "The Goedel Programming Language", P. M. Hill et al, MIT Press 1994, ISBN 0-262-08229-2. Goedel 1.4 - partial implementation in SICStus Prolog 2.1. info:

Gofer - Mark Jones <>, Oxford 1991. Similar to Haskell 1.1. Lazy evaluation, higher order functions, pattern matching, and type classes. Lambda, case, conditional and let expressions, and wildcard, as and irrefutable patterns. Lacks modules, arrays, standard classes. "Introduction to Gofer 2.20", M.P. Jones. Interpreter in C. Unix Version 2.28a, Mac_Gofer version 0.16 beta.*

GOL - General Operating Language. Subsystem of DOCUS. Sammet 1969, p.678.

GOM - Good Old MAD. Don Boettner, U Mich. MAD for the IBM 360. Parts of the MTS Time-sharing system were written in GOM.

GOOD - Graph-Oriented Object Database. A graph manipulation language for use as a database query language. "A Graph-Oriented Object Database Model", M. Gyssens et al, Proc ACM Symp Princs of Database Sys, Mar 1990.

GOSPL - Graphics-Oriented Signal Processing Language. A graphical DSP language for simulation. "Graphic Oriented Signal Processing Language - GOSPL", C.D. Covington et al, Proc ICASSP-87, 1987.

GP - Early system on UNIVAC I or II. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).


1. General Purpose Language. ALGOL 60 variant with user-definable typoes and operators. Sammet 1969, p.195. "The GPL Language", J.V. Garwick et al, TER-05, CDC, Palo Alto 1969.

2. "A Sample Management Application Program in a Graphical Data-driven Programming language", A.L. Davis et al, Digest of Papers, Compcon Spring 81, Feb 1981, pp.162-167.

3. Genken Programming Language. K. Asai, Japan Atomic Energy Res Inst. Variant of PL360. "Experience With GPL", K. Asai, in Machine Oriented Higher Level Languages, W. van der Poel, N-H 1974, pp.371-376.

GPM - General Purpose Macro-generator. Early text-processing language similar to TRAC, implemented on Atlas 2. "A General Purpose Macrogenerator", C. Strachey, Computer J 8(3):225-241 (Oct 1965).

GPSS - General Purpose Systems Simulator. Geoffrey Gordon, 1960. Discrete simulations. "The Application of GPSS V to Discrete System Simulation", G. Gordon, P-H 1975. Versions include GPSS II (1963), GPSS III (1965), GPS/360 (1967), and GPSS V (1970).

GPX - Early system on UNIVAC II. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

GRAAL - ("Grail") General Recursive Applicative and Algorithmic Language. FP with polyadic combinators. "Graal: A Functional Programming System with Uncurryfied Combinators and its Reduction Machine", P. Bellot in ESOP 86, G. Goos ed, LNCS 213, Springer 1986.

GRAF - GRaphic Additions to FORTRAN. FORTRAN plus graphic data types. "GRAF: Graphic Additions to FORTRAN", A. Hurwitz et al, Proc SJCC 30 (1967). Sammet 1969, p.674.

GRAIL - Graphical Input Language. Flowchart language entered on a graphics tablet. The graphical followon to JOSS. "The GRAIL Language and Operations", T.O. Ellis et al, RM-6001-ARPA, RAND, Sept 1969.

GRAIN - Pictorial query language. "Pictorial Information Systems", S.K. Chang et al eds, Springer 1980.

GRAM - An extension of BNF used by the SIS compiler generator. "SIS - Semantics Implementation System", P.D. Mosses, TR DAIMI MD-30, Aarhus U, Denmark.

Grapes - A Modula-like system description language. "GRAPES Language Description. Syntax, Semantics and Grammar of GRAPES-86", Siemens Nixdorf Inform, Berlin 1991, ISBN 3-8009-4112-0. info:

Graphic ALGOL - Generation of shaded perspective picures in real time. "An Extended ALGOL-60 for Shaded Computer Graphics", B. Jones, Proc ACM Symp on Graphic Languages, Apr 1976.

Graphic Language - For specifying graphic operations. "A Problem Oriented Graphic Language", P.J. Schwinn, proc ACM 22nd Natl Conf, 1967. Sammet 1969, p.677.

GRAPPLE - GRAPh Processing LanguagE. 1968. "A Directed Graph Representation for Computer Simulation of Belief Systems", L.G. Tesler et al, Math Biosciences 2:19-40 (1968).

GRASP/Ada - Graphical Representation of Algorithms, Structures and Processes. "A Graphicallky Oriented Specification Language for Automatic Code Generation", J.H. Cross, Auburn U, NASA CR-183212, 1989.

Green - Cii Honeywell-Bull. A proposed language to meet the DoD Ironman requirements which led to Ada. This language was the winner, in 1979. "On the GREEN Language Submitted to the DoD", E.W. Dijkstra, SIGPLAN Notices 13(10):16-21 (Oct 1978).

GRG - Computer algebra system for differential geometry, gravitation and field theory. Version 3.1 works with PSL-based REDUCE 3.3 or 3.4. info: V.V. Zhytnikov <>

GRIND - GRaphical INterpretive Display. Graphical input language for PDP- 9. "GRIND: A Language and Translator for Computer Graphics", A.P. Conn, Dartmouth, June 1969.

Groff - GNU's implementation of roff. (See nroff, troff, RUNOFF).

GSBL - "GSBL: An Algebraic Specification Language Based on Inheritance", S. Clerici et al in in ECOOP '88, S. Gjessing et al eds, LNCS 322, Springer 1988, pp.78-92.

GSL - Grenoble System Language. M. Berthaud, IBM, Grenoble. "GSL Language Reference Manual", M. Berthaud et al, March 1973. "A MOL-Based Software Construction System", M. Berthaud et al, in Machine Oriented Higher Level Languages, W. van der Poel, N-H 1974, pp.151-157.

GSPL - Greenberg's System Programming Language. Bernard Greenberg.

GTML - ? Mentioned in the documentation for TXL.

GVL - Graphical View Language. T.C.N. Graham & J.R. Cordy, Queen's U. Canada. A visual language for specifying interactive graphical output. "GVL: A Graphical, Functional Language for the Specification of Output in Programming Languages", J.R. Cordy & T.C.N. Graham, Proc IEEE Intl Conf on Comp Lang ICCL'90 (March 1990).

GW-BASIC - "Gee Whiz" BASIC. Microsoft's BASIC with graphic extensions.

Gypsy - Specification and verification of concurrent systems software. Message passing using named mailboxes. Separately compilable units: routine (procedure, function, or process), type and constant definition, each with a list of access rights. "Report on the Language Gypsy", A.L. Ambler et al, UT Austin ICSCS-CMP-1 Aug 1976.

GYVE - OS programming language, highly modular (similar to Modula?) "GYVE, A Programming Language for Protection and Control in a Concurrent Processing Environment", Phillip Shaw, Courant Inst, NYU, 1978.