Programming Languages - K

Sample Program

K5 - Early system on Larc computer. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

Kaleidoscope - Freeman-Benson <>, U Washington and Universite de Nantes, 1989; U Victoria, 1992. Object-oriented language which mixes imperative and constraint-oriented features. Similar to Siri. Vaguely related to Prose[2]. "Kaleidoscope: Mixing Objects, Constraints and Imperative Programming", B.N. Freeman-Benson, SIGPLAN Notices 25(10):77-88 (OOPSLA/ECOOP '90) (Oct 1990). "Constraint Imperative Programming", B.N. Freeman-Benson, Ph.D. Thesis, TR 91-07-02, U Wash (1991). "Constraint Imperative Programming", Freeman-Benson et al, IEEE Conf on Comp Lang, Apr 1992. Versions: Kaleidoscope'90, Kaleidoscope'91, Kaleidoscope'93.

Kali - Data parallel language. "Supporting Shared Data Structures on Distributed Memory Architectures", C. Koelbel et al in Second ACM SIGPLAN Symp on Princ and Prac of Parallel Programming, pp.177-186, Mar 1990.

KAP - Kernel Andorra Prolog. "Kernel Andorra Prolog and its Computation Model", S. Haridi <> et al, in Logic Programming: Proc 7th Intl Conf, MIT Press 1990. Predecessor to AKL.

Karel - Language featured in Karel the Robot: A Gentle Introduction to Computer Programming, Richard E. Pattis, Wiley 1981.

KBMS - Expert system.

KCL - Kyoto Common LISP. Taiichi Yuasa and Masami Hagiya, 1984. Compiles to ANSI C. "Design and Implementation of Kyoto Common Lisp", T. Yuasa <>, J Info Proc 13(3):284-295 (1990). "Kyoto Common Lisp Report", T. Yuasa & M. Hagiya. (See AKCL and GCL). list:

K-code. Language recognized by the K-machine, a virtual machine with an incremental constraint solver and a constraint-based data store. Used to implement Kaleidoscope. "Implementing Constraint Imperative Programming Languages: The Kaleidoscope'93 Virtual Machine", G. Lopez et al, SIGPLAN Notices 29(10):259-271 (Oct 1994).

KEE - Knowledge Engineering Environment. Frame-based expert system. Supports dynamic inheritance, multiple inheritance, polymorphism. Classes, meta-classes and objects are all treated alike. A class is an instance of a meta-class. Can control rules for merging of each field when multiple inheritance takes place. Methods are written in LISP. Actions may be triggered when fields are accessed or modified. Extensive GUI integrates with objects. Can easily make object updates to be reflected on display or display selections to update fields. This can in turn trigger other methods or inference rules which may then update other parts of the display. Intellicorp, for TI Explorer. "The Role of Frame-Based Representation in Reasoning", R. Fikes et al, CACM 28(9):904- 920 (Sept 1985).

Kernel Parlog - Modeless intermediate language for Parlog compilation. "Notes on the Implementation of Parlog", K.L. Clark et al, J Logic Prog 2(1):17-42 (1985).

Kevo - A. Taivalsaari <>. Prototype-based object-oriented system built around a threaded code interpreter. Semantically resembles Self and Omega. Syntacically resembles Forth. TR DCS-197-19, U Victoria, June 1992.

KFX - Kernel language of FX-87. "Polymorphic Effect Systems", J.M. Lucassen et al, Proc 15th Ann ACM Conf POPL, ACM 1988, pp.47-57.

Kid - Kernel language for Id. A refinement of P-TAC, used as an intermediate language for Id. Lambda-calculus with first-class let-blocks, plus I-structures. "A Syntactic Approach to Program Transformations", Z. Ariola et al, SIGPLAN Notices 26(9):116-129 (Sept 1991).

KISS - Early system on IBM 650. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

KL0 - Sequential logic language based on Prolog, for the ICOT project, Japan.

KL1 - Kernel Language 1. An experimental AND-parallel version of KL0 for the ICOT project, Japan. An implementation of FGHC. "Design of the Kernel Language for the Parallel Inference Machine", U. Kazunori et al, Computer J (Dec 1990).

Klerer-May System - Columbia U. Early system with special math symbols. Its reference manual was two pages long! "Further Advances in Two- Dimensional Input-Output by Typewriter Terminals", M. Klerer et al, Proc FJCC 31 (1967). Sammet 1969, pp.284-294.

KL-ONE - Frame language. "An Overview of the KL-ONE Knowledge Representation System", R.J. Brachman and J. Schmolze, Cognitive Sci 9(2), 1985.

KLS - Knotted List Structures. List-processing language, a predecessor of SLIP. "Knotted List Structures", J. Weizenbaum, CACM 5:161 (Mar 19620.

KMODEL - An ancestor of Model-K. "Preliminary Results on the BEHAVIOR Specifications Language KMODEL-0", BEHAVIOR Memo 5-91, 1991, GMD, Sankt Augustin, Germany

KOMPILER - Early system on IBM 701. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959). Versions: KOMPILER 2 for IBM 701, KOMPILER 3 for IBM 704.

KRC - Kent Recursive Calculator. Turner 1981. Lazy functional language based on SASL, with pattern matching, ZF expressions. "Functional Programming and its Applications", David A. Turner, Cambridge U Press 1982.

KRL - Knowledge Representation Language. A frame-based language. "An Overview of KRL, a Knowledge Representation Language", D.G. Bobrow and T. Winograd, Cognitive Sci 1:1 (1977).

KRS - Frame-based language built on Common LISP.

KRYPTON - Frame language. "An Essential Hybrid Reasoning System: Knowledge and Symbol Level Accounts of of KRYPTON", R.J. Brachman et al, Proc IJCAI- 85, 1985.

ksh - Korn Shell command interpreter for Unix.