Programming Languages - N

Sample Program

NASTRAN - NAsa STRess ANalysis program. Large stress analysis problems. "The NASTRAN User's Manual", SP-222(C3), NASA.

Napier - Atkinson & Morrison, St Andrews U; design began ca. 1985, first implementation Napier88, 1988. Based on orthogonal persistence, permits definition and manipulation of namespaces. "The Napier88 Reference Manual", R. Morrison et al, CS Depts St Andrews U and U Glasgow, Persistent Programming Research Report PPRR-77-89, 1989.

NAPLPS - North American Presentation-Level-Protocol Syntax. Format for sending text and graphics over communication lines. Used by videotex systems and (covertly) by Prodigy. See RIPscrip.

NAPSS - Numerical Analysis Problem Solving System. Purdue ca. 1965. "NAPSS - A Numerical Analysis Problem Solving System", J.R. Rice et al, Proc ACM 21st Natl Conf, 1966. Sammet 1969, p.299.

NASTRAN - Engineering language, listed [?] 1976.

NATURAL - Software AG, Germany. Integrated 4GL used by the database system ADABAS. Menu-driven version: SUPER/NATURAL. Also NATURAL 2?

Natural English - Used to mean programming in normal, spoken English. Sammet 1969, p.768.

Nawk - New AWK. AT&T. Pattern scanning and processing language. An enhanced version of AWK, with dynamic regular expressions, additional built-ins and operators, and user-defined functions.

NB - ("New B"?) Original name of C.

NDL- Network Definition Language. Used to program the DCP (Data Communications Processor) on Burroughs Large System. Version: NDL II.

Nebula - ICL. Early business-oriented language for Ferranti Orion computer. "NEBULA - A Programming Language for Data Processing", T.G. Braunholtz et al, Computer J 4(3):197-201 (1961).

NELIAC - Navy Electronics Laboratory International ALGOL Compiler. 1958- 1959. Numeric and logical computations, based on IAL. "Neliac - A Dialect of Algol", H.D. Huskey et al, CACM 3(8):463-468 (Aug 1960). "Machine- Independent Computer Programming, Maurice Halstead, Spartan Books 1962. Version: BC NELIAC.

Neon - Charles Duff. An object-oriented extension of FORTH, for the Mac. Inheritance, SANE floating point, system classes and objects for Mac interfacing, overlays. Sold by Kriya Systems, 1985-1988. Modified, made PD and renamed Yerk.

NERECO - NEtwork REmote COmmunications. CSP with extensions to allow asymmetrical and asynchronous communications and fault handling. Implemented on a network of Suns. "A Concurrent Programming Support for Distributed Systems", G. Spezzano et al, in Computing Systems vol 3, pp.423-447, U Cal Press, 1990.

NESL - Fine-grained, functional, data-parallel language with nested data structures and nested parallelism. Includes a built-in parallel data type and parallel operations on sequences. Loosely based on ML. Useful for parallel algorithms on sparse matrices and graphs."NESL: A Nested Data- Parallel Language", Guy Blelloch, CMU-CS-93-129, April 1993. Version 2.6 for Cray Y-MP, CM-2, and Encore Multimax.

NETL - Semantic network language, for connectionist architectures. "NETL: A System for Representing and Using Real-World Data", S.E. Fahlman, MIT Press 1979.

New Flavors - Symbolics. An object-oriented LISP, successor to Flavors, led to CLOS. "Reference Guide to Symbolics-Lisp", Symbolics, March 1985.

NEWP - NEW Programming language. Replaced ESPOL on Burroughs Large System.

NewsClip - Looking Glass Software. Very high level language for writing netnews filters. Used by ClariNet Communications. info:

Newspeak -

1. J.K. Foderaro. Inspired by Scratchpad. "The Design of a Language for Algebraic Computation", Ph.D. Thesis, UC Berkeley, 1983.

2. [?]

Newsqueak - Concurrent applicative language with synchronous channels. "Newsqueak: A Language for Communicating with Mice", R. Pike CSTR143, Bell Labs (March 1989). "The Implementation of Newsqueak", Rob Pike, Soft Prac & Exp 20(7):649-659 (July 1990).

Newton - (named after Isaac Newton (1642-1727)). Rapin et al, Swiss Federal Inst Tech, Lausanne 1981. General purpose expression language, syntactically ALGOL-like, with object-oriented and functional features and a rich set of primitives for concurrency. Used for undergraduate teaching at Lausanne (EPFL). "Procedural Objects in Newton", Ch. Rapin, SIGPLAN Notices 24(9) (Sep 1989). "The Newton Language", Ch. Rapin et al, SIGPLAN Notices 16(8):31-40 (Aug 1981). "Programming in Newton", Wuetrich and Menu, EPFL 1982. Versions: Newton 2.6 for VAX/VMS and Newton 1.2 for DEC- Alpha/OSF-1. info: J. Hulaas <>*

Nexpert Object - Expert system.

NFQL - "NFQL: The Natural Forms Query Language", D. Embley, Trans Database Sys 14(2):168-211 (June 1989).

NGL - Dialect of IGL.

NIAL - Nested Interactive Array Language. Queen's U, Canada. High-level array-oriented language, based on Array Theory as developed by Trenchard More Jr. (Papers on this subject are available from the IBM Cambridge Scientific Center, Cambridge MA.) "Programming Styles in NIAL", M.A. Jenkins et al, IEEE Software 3(1):46-55 (Jan 1986). (See Q'NIAL).


1. Small subset of PL/I by (Massachusetts) Computer Assoc, ca. 1965. Version: NICOL II (1967). Sammet 1969, p.542.

2. ICL, 1968. [same as 1?]

NIKL - Frame language. "Recent Developments in NIKL", T.R. Kaczmarek et al, Proc AAAI-86, 1986.


1. New Implementation of Lisp. Intended to be the successor of MacLisp. A large LISP, implemented mostly in VAX assembly language. A forerunner of Common LISP. "NIL: A Perspective", Jon L. White, MACSYMA Users' Conf Proc, 1979.

2. Network Implementation Language. Strom & Yemini, TJWRC, IBM. Implementation of complex networking protocols in a modular fashion. "NIL: An Integrated Language and System for Distributed Programming", R. Strom et al, SIGPLAN Notices 18(6):73-82 (June 1983).

NJCL - Network Job Control Language. "NJCL - A Network Job Control Language", J. du Masle et al, IFIP Congress 1974.

nML - Specification language for instruction sets, based on attribute grammars, for back-end generators. "The nML Machine Description Formalism", M. Freericks <> TR TU Berlin, FB20, Bericht 1991/15.

NODAL - Interpreted language implemented on Norsk Data's NORD-10 computers. Used by CERN and DESY high energy physics labs to control their accelerator hardware, PADAC and SEDAC. Included trackball input, graphics.

Noddy - A simple (hence the name) language to handle text and interaction on the Memotech home computer. Has died with the machine.

NOMAD - Database language. "NOMAD Reference Manual", Form 1004, National CSS Inc (Dec 1976). Version: NOMAD2, Must Software Intl. list: NOMAD2-L@TAMVM1.BITNET

Nonpareil - One of five pedagogical languages based on Markov algorithms, used in "Nonpareil, a Machine Level Machine Independent Language for the Study of Semantics", B. Higman, ULICS Intl Report No ICSI 170, U London (1968). (cf. Brilliant, Diamond, Pearl[3], Ruby[2]).

NORC COMPILER - Early system on NORC machine. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

NORD PL - Intermediate language for Norsk Data computers. Sintran III (OS of the ND 10, late 70's) was written in NORD PL. "NORD PL User's Guide", ND-60.047.03.

Nother - Parallel symbolic math. info:


1. New Programming Language. IBM's original (temporary) name for PL/I, changed due to conflict with England's "National Physical Laboratory." MPL and MPPL were considered before settling on PL/I. Sammet 1969, p.542.

2. Burstall, 1977. A predecessor of HOPE. Pattern matching and set comprehensions.

3. NonProcedural Language. 1980. A relational database language. "An Introduction to Nonprocedural Languages Using NPL", T.D. Truitt et al, McGraw-Hill 1983. Versions for Apple ][, MS-DOS.

NPPL - Network Picture Processing Language. Interactive language for manipulation of digraphs. "A Graph Manipulator for On-line Network Picture Processing", H.A. DiGiulio, Proc FJCC 35 (1969).

N-Prolog - Prolog extended with explicit negation. Dov Gabbay, J Logic Programming.

Nqthm - Language[?] used in the Boyer-Moore theorem prover. "Proving Theorems About LISP Functions", R.S. Boyer et al JACM 22(1):129-144 (Jan 1975).

Nroff - Text formatting language/interpreter, based on Unix roff. (See Troff, Groff, RUNOFF.)

NUCLEOL - List processing language, influenced by EOL. J. Nievergelt, Computer J 13(3) (Aug 1970).

Nuprl - (pronounced "new pearl") Nearly Ultimate PRL. Interactive creation of formal mathematics, including definitions and proofs. An extremely rich type system, including dependent functions, products, sets, quotients and universes. Types are first-class citizens. Built on Franz Lisp and Edinburgh ML. "Implementing Mathematics in the Nuprl Proof Development System", R.L. Constable et al, P-H 1986.

NU-Prolog - L. Naish, U Melbourne. A Prolog with 'when' declarations, the successor to MU-Prolog. Type-checked. "NU-Prolog Reference Manual - Version 1.3", J.A. Thom et al eds, TR 86/10, U Melbourne (1988). Available (but not free). (See PNU-Prolog). info:

NYAP - Early system on IBM 704. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

NYU OMNIFAX - Early system on UNIVAC I or II. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).