Programming Languages - Q

Sample Program

Q - Very high level language based on generalized (lazy) sequences. Lexical scope, some support for logical and constraint programming. Macros. Implemented in C++.*

QA4 - Question-answering language. A procedural calculus for intuitive reasoning. A LISP-based pattern-matching language for theorem proving. "QA4, A Language for Writing Problem-Solving Programs", J.F. Rulifson et al, Proc IFIP Congress 1968.

QBE - Query By Example. Moshe Zloof, IBM 1975. A user-friendly query language. "QBE: A Language for Office and Business Automation", M.M. Zloof, Computer pp.13-22 (May 1981).

Qlambda - "Queue-based Multi-processing Lisp", R. Gabriel & J. McCarthy, Proc 1984 Symp Lisp and Functional Prog, pp.25-44.


1. SRI 1973. General problem solving, influenced by PLANNER. QA4 features merged with INTERLISP. "QLISP - A Language for the Interactive Development of Complex Systems", E. Sacerdoti et al, NCC 45:349-356, AFIPS (1976).

2. A parallel LISP. "Qlisp", R. Gabriel et al in Parallel Computation and Computers for AI, J. Kowalik ed, 1988, pp.63-89.

QLOG - An integration of logic programming into LISP. "QLOG - The Programming Environment for Prolog in LISP", H.J. Komorowski in Logic Prgramming, K.L. Clark et al eds, Academic Press 1982.

Q'NIAL - Queen's U, Canada. A portable incremental compiler for NIAL, written in C. "The Q'NIAL Reference Manual", M.A. Jenkins, Queen's U Report, Dec 1983. Versions for Unix and MS-DOS, from NIAL Systems Ltd, Ottawa Canada, (613)234-4188.

QPE - Two-dimensional pictorial query language. "Pictorial Information Systems", S.K. Chang et al eds, Springer 1980.

Q-systems. A. Colmerauer, 1969. A rewrite system with one-way unification, used for English-French translation. It led to Prolog. "The Birth of Prolog" A. Colmerauer et al, SIGPLAN Notices 28(3):37-52 (March 1993).

Quake - Stephen Harrison, DEC SRC, 1993. A string-oriented language designed to support the construction of Modula-3 programs from modules, interfaces and libraries.

QUEASY - Early system on IBM 701. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

QUEL - Query language used by the database management system INGRES.

Quest -

1. A language designed for its simple denotational semantics. "The Denotational Semantics of Programming Languages", R. Tennent, CACM 19(8):437-453 (Aug 1976).

2. QUantifiers and SubTypes. Language with a sophisticated type system. Just as types classify values, "kinds" classify types and type operators. Explicit universal and existential quantification over types, type operators, and subtypes. Subtyping is defined inductively on all type constructions, including higher-order functions and abstract types. User- definable higher-order type operators. "Typeful Programming", Luca Cardelli <>, RR 45, DEC SRC 1989. Implemented in Modula-3.

QUICK - Early system on IBM 701. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

Quicksilver - dBASE-like compiler for MS-DOS from WordTech, Orinda, CA.

QUIKSCRIPT - Simulation language derived from SIMSCRIPT, based on 20-GATE. "Quikscript - A Simpscript-like Language for the G-20", F.M. Tonge et al, CACM 8(6):350-354 (June 1965).

QUIKTRAN - FORTRAN-like, interactive with debugging facilities. Sammet 1969, p.226.

QUIN - Pyle 1965. Interactive language. Sammet 1969, p.691.

Quintec-Objects - Based on Quintec (not Quintus) Prolog. British.

Quty - Functional plus logic. "Quty: A Functional Language Based on Unification", M. Sato et al, in Conf Fifth Gen Computer Systems, ICOT 1984, pp.157-165.

QX - (meaning "OK", from E.E. Smith SF books). Richard Gillmann, SDC, Santa Monica. Language for digital signal processing of digitized speech. Was part of SDC's speech recognition project.