Programming Languages - R

Sample Program

Raddle - "On the Design of Large Distributed Systems", I.R. Forman, Proc 1st IEEE Intl Conf Comp Langs, pp.25-27 (Oct 1986).

RAIL - Automatix. High-level language for industrial robots.


RAL - Expert system.

RAMIS II - Rapid Access Management Information System. Database system. On-Line Software Intl.

Rapidwrite - Method for translating set of abbreviations into the much more verbose COBOL code. Sammet 1969, p.338.

RAPT - "An Interpreter for a Language for Describing Assemblies", R.J. Popplestone et al, Artif Intell 14:79-107 (1980).

RASP - "RASP - A Language with Operations on Fuzzy Sets", D.D. Djakovic, Comp Langs 13(3):143-148 (1988).

RATEL - Raytheon Automatic Test Equipment Language. For analog and digital computer controlled test centers. "Automatic Testing via a Distributed Intelligence Processing System", S.J. Ring, IEEE AUTOTESTCON 77 (Nov 1977).

RATFIV - Successor to RATFOR.

RATFOR - RATional FORTRAN. Kernighan. FORTRAN preprocessor to allow programming with C-like control flow. "Ratfor - A Preprocessor for a Rational Fortran", B.W. Kernighan, Soft Prac & Exp 5:395-406 (Oct 1975). Featured in Software Tools, B.W. Kernighan & P.J. Plauger, A-W 1976.

RAWOOP-SNAP - Early system on IBM 1103 or 1103A. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

R:BASE - MS-DOS 4GL from Microrim. Based on Minicomputer DBMS RIM. Was Wayne Erickson the author?

RBASIC - Database language for Revelation, by Cosmos Inc. Combines features of BASIC, Pascal and Fortran.

RBCSP - Roper & Barter's CSP. "A Communicating Sequential Process Language and Implementation", T. Roper & J. Barter, Soft Prac & Exp 11(11):1215-1234 (Nov 1981).

rc -

1. Tom Duff. AT&T Plan 9 shell. Lookalike by Byron Rakitzis <>

2. Microsoft resource language.

RCC - An extensible language. [?]

RCL - Reduced Control Language. A simplified job control language for OS360, translated to IBM JCL. "Reduced Control Language for Non- Professional Users", K. Appel in Command Languages, C. Unger ed, N-H 1973.

RDL - Requirements and Development Language. "RDL: A Language for Software Development", H.C. Heacox, SIGPLAN Notices 14(9):71-79 (Sep 1979).

Real-Time Euclid - Real-time language, restriction to time-bounded constructs. "Real-Time Euclid: A Language for Reliable Real-Time Systems", E. Kligerman et al, IEEE Trans Software Eng SE-12(9):941-949 (Sept 1986).

Real-Time Mentat - An extension of C++. "Real-Time Mentat: A Data-Driven Object-Oriented System", A.S. Grimshaw et al, Proc IEEE Globecom, Nov 1989 pp.232-241.

Real-Time Pascal - Later name for Pascal-80 by RC Intl, Denmark.

REC - Regular Expression Converter. See CONVERT.

Recital - dBASE-like language/DBMS from Recital Corp. Versions include VAX/VMS.

RECOL - REtrieval COmmand Language. CACM 6(3):117-122 (Mar 1963).

Red - (Also "REDL"). Intermetrics. A language proposed to meet the Ironman requirements which led to Ada. "On the RED Language Submitted to the DoD", E.W. Dijkstra, SIGPLAN Notices 13(10):27 (Oct 1978). "RED Language Reference Manual", J. Nestor and M. van Deusen, Intermetrics 1979.

REDCODE - Proposed as a language for "battle programs" in corewars. (See Computer Recreations column in Scientific American.)

RediLisp - R.M. Keller, U Utah. Dialect of Lisp used on the Rediflow machine, a derivative of FEL.

REDUCE - Anthony Hearn, 1963. Symbolic math, ALGOL-like syntax, written in LISP. "REDUCE, Software for Algebraic Computation", G. Rayna, Springer 1987. Version: Reduce 2, based on Portable Standard LISP. list: REDUCE-L@DEARN.BITNET info: server:

Refal - Recursive Functions Algorithmic Language. V. Turchin, Moscow ca 1972 (now at CUNY?). "Supercompiler System Based on the Language Refal", V. Turchin, SIGPLAN Notices 14(2):46-54 (Feb 1979).

REF-ARF - "REF-ARF: A System for Solving Problems Stated as Procedures", R.E. Fikes, Artif Intell J 1(1) (Spring 1970).

Refine - Cordell Green et al, Stanford U. High-level wide-spectrum specification language. Set-theoretic date types (sets, mappings, sequences), first-order logic (for all, there exists). Syntax-directed pattern matching, type inference, and a declarative transformation operator (pre- and post-conditions). Implemented as algorithms which build and transform annotated abstract syntax trees. Compiled into Common Lisp. "Research on Knowledge-Based Software Environments at Kestrel Institute", D.R. Smith et al, IEEE Trans Soft Eng, SE-11(11) (1985). Available from Reasoning Systems, 3260 Hillview Ave, Palo Alto, CA 94304. (See CHI). info:

Refined C (RC) - An extension of C to directly specify data access rights so that flow analysis, and hence automatic parallelization, is more effective. Research implementations only. "Refining A Conventional Language For Race-Free Specification Of Parallel Algorithms," H.G. Dietz et al, Proc 1984 Intl Conf Parallel Proc, pp.380-382.

Refined Fortran (RF) - Similar to Refined C. Research implementations only. "Refined FORTRAN: Another Sequential Language for Parallel Programming," H.G. Dietz et al, Proc 1986 Intl Conf Parallel Proc, pp.184-191.

REG-SYMBOLIC - Early system on IBM 704. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

REGTRAL - [?] Mentioned in Attribute Grammars, LNCS 323, p.108.

Relational Language. Clark & Gregory. First parallel logic language to use the concept of committed choice. Forerunner of PARLOG. "A Relational Language for Parallel Programming", K.L. Clark et al, Proc ACM Conf on Functional Prog Langs and Comp Arch, pp.171-178, ACM 1981.

RELATIVE - Early system on IBM 650. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

RELCODE - Early system on UNIVAC I or II. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

REL English - Rapidly Extensible Language, English. A formal language based on English. "Practical Natural Language Processing: The REL System as Prototype", Adv in Computers 13, Academic Press 1975.

RenderMan Shading Language. "The RenderMan Companion", S. Upstill, A-W 1989, chaps 13-15.

RENDEZVOUS - Query language, close to natural English. "Seven Steps to Rendezvous with the Casual User", E. Codd in Data Base Management, J.W. Klimbie et al eds, N-H 1974, pp.179-199.

REPL - Restricted EPL. A subset of EPL (the efficient part) used to write the core of Multics.

Required-COBOL - 1961. Minimal subset of COBOL. Later dropped entirely. Sammet 1969, p.339.

Retrieve - Tymshare Corp, 1960's. Query language, inspired JPLDIS which led to Vulcan[1] and then to dBASE II.

Revised ALGOL 60 - Alternate name for ALGOL 60 Revised. Sammet 1969, p.773.

REXX - Restructured EXtended eXecutor. M. Cowlishaw, IBM ca. 1979. (Original name: REX. They also call it "System Product Interpreter"). Scripting language for IBM VM and MVS systems, replacing EXEC2. "The REXX Language: A Practical Approach to Programming", M.F. Cowlishaw, 1985. Versions: PC-Rexx for MS-DOS, and AREXX for Amiga. list: REXX-L@UIUCVMD.BITNET.* REXX interpreters for Unix

Rez - MacIntosh resource language.

RIGAL - Language for compiler writing. Data strucures are atoms, lists/trees. Control based on pattern-matching. "Programming Language RIGAL as a Compiler Writing Tool", M.I. Augustson, Inst of Math and CS of Latvia U, 1987.

Rigel - Database language? Based on Pascal. Listed by M.P. Atkinson & J.W. Schmidt in a tutorial presented in Zurich, 1989.

RIPscrip - Remote Imaging Protocol scripts. Telegrafix Inc. A protocol/language for describing graphics-painting operations over low speed serial lines. Resembles a small-scale version of NAPLPS. Popular with BBS implementors. Implemented by the freeware communications program RIPterm for MS-DOS. "RIPscrip Graphics Protocol SPecification, Version 1.54", Telegrafix.

RLL - Representation Language Language. A frame language. "A Representation Language Language", R. Greiner and D.B. Lenat, Proc AAAI-80, 1980.

RMAG - Recursive Macro Actuated Generator. Robert A. Magnuson, NIH ca 1970. Stand-alone macroprocessor for IBM 360/370 under VS or OS. Many built-in features and a library of several hundred macros. Several large systems were written in RMAG to generate source code for languages such as IBM JCL, IBM assembly language, COBOL. There was also a system (SLANG: Structured LANGuage compiler) which would generate 370 assembly language from a pseudo-structured-programming language, based on Michael Kessler's structure programming macros developed at IBM. "Project RMAG--RMAG22 User's Guide", R.A. Magnuson, NIH-DCRT-DMB-SSS-UG103, NIH, DHEW, Bethesda, MD 20205 (1977).

ROADS - Subsystem of ICES. Sammet 1969, p.616.

ROBEX - ROBot EXapt. Aachen Tech College. Based on EXAPT. Version: ROBEX-M for micros.

Robotalk - A Forth-based assembly/control language with low level extensions such as special purpose registers and interrupts, and traces of C, Pascal and the HP48 calculator. Used in the game "RoboWar" by David Haris, implemented on the Macintosh. Decompiler by Josh Goldfoot.

Roff - Text formatting language/interpreter associated with Unix. (See groff, nroff, troff, RUNOFF).

ROME - Experimental object-oriented language. "The Point of View Notion for Multiple Inheritance", B. Carre et al, SIGPLAN Notices 25(10):312-321 (OOPSLA/ECOOP '90) (Oct 1990).

Rossette - MCC. Concurrent object-oriented language.

RPG - Report Program Generator. IBM 1965. For easy production of sophisticated large system reports. Standard language for programming IBM's S/36 and AS/400 systems. Versions: RPG II, RPG III, RPG/400 for the IBM AS/400. MS-DOS versions by California Software and Lattice. (See CL, OCL).

RPL-1 - Data reduction language. Proc SJCC 30:571-575, AFIPS (Spring 1967).

RPL - Reverse Polish LISP. Language used by HP-28 and HP-48 calculators.

RPT - Unify. Report Writer Language.

RSL - RAISE Specification Language. (RAISE=Rigorous Approach to Industrial Software Engineering). A wide-spectrum specification and design language. Systems may be modular, concurrent, nondeterministic. Specifications may be applicative or imperative, explicit or implicit, abstract or concrete. ESPRIT Project 315, CRI A/S, Denmark. "The RAISE Specification Language", RAISE Language Group, P-H 1992, ISBN 0-13-752833-7.

RTC++ - Real-time extension of C++. "Object-Oriented Real-Time Language Design: Constructs for Timing Constraints", Y. Ishikawa et al, SIGPLAN Notices 25(10):289-298 (OOPSLA/ECOOP '90) (Oct 1990).

RT-CDL - Real-Time Common Design Language. Real-time language for the design of reliable reactive systems. "RT-CDL: A Real-Time Description Language and Its Semantics", L.Y. Lin et al, 11th World Computer Congress IFIP '89 pp.19-26 (Sep 1989).

RTL - Register Transfer Language. Chris Fraser <> & J. Davidson <>, U Arizona early 80's. Intermediate code for a machine with an infinite number of registers, used for machine-independent optimization. RTL is used by the GNU C compiler and by Davidson's VPCC (Very Portable C compiler). "Quick Compilers Using Peephole Optimization", Davidson et al, Soft Prac & Exp 19(1):79-97 (Jan 1989).

RTL/1 - Real Time Language. Barnes, ICI 1971. A real-time language, the predecessor of RTL/2. "Real Time Languages for Process Control, J.G.P. Barnes, Computer J 15(1):15-17 (Feb 1972).

RTL/2 - John Barnes et al, Imperical Chemical Industries, 1972. Small real-time language based on ALGOL 68, with separate compilation. A program is composed of separately compilable 'bricks' (named modules) which may be datablock, procedure, or stack. A stack is a storage area for use as a workspace by a task. The language is block-structured and weakly typed. Simple types are byte, int, frac and real, no Boolean. Compound types may be formed from arrays, records and refs (pointers). There are no user- defined types. Control consists of if-then-elseif-else-end, for-to-by-do- rep, block-endblock, switch, goto, and label variables. Currently used in the UK and Europe for Air Traffic Control and industrial control. "RTL/2: Design and Philosophy", J.G.P. Barnes, Hayden & Son, 1976. British Standards Inst BS5904 (1980), now being revised.

Ruby -

1. Jones & Sheeran, 1986. Hardware description language. "Ruby - A Language of Relations and Higher-Order Functions", M. Sheeran, Proc 3rd Banff Workshop on Hardware Verification, Springer 1990.* info:

2. One of five pedagogical languages based on Markov algorithms, used in "Nonpareil, a Machine Level Machine Independent Language for the Study of Semantics", B. Higman, ULICS Intl Report No ICSI 170, U London (1968). (cf. Brilliant, Diamond, Nonpareil, Pearl[3]).

RUFL - Rhodes University Functional Language. Rhodes U, Grahamstown, South Africa. Miranda-like.

RUNCIBLE - Early system for math on IBM 650. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

RUNOFF - An early text-formatting language supported under TOPS-10 on the PDP-10. Ancestral to the troff/nroff/groff family of Unix-based formatters, it resembled a large subset of nroff.


1. Remote Use of Shared Hardware. ca 1966. Interactive dialect of PL/I, related to CPS[1]. "Introduction to RUSH", Allen-Babcock Computing 1969. Sammet 1969, p.309.

2. Adam Sah et al. Extension language, a descendant of Tcl. "An Introduction to the Rush Language", A. Sah et al, Proc Tcl'94 Workshop, June 1994.*

Russell - (named for the British mathematician Bertrand Russell (1872- 1970)) A. Demers & J. Donahue. A compact, polymorphically typed functional language, with bignums and continuations. Types are themselves first-class values and may be passed as arguments. "An Informal Description of Russell", H. Boehm et al, Cornell CS TR 80-430, 1980. "Understanding Russell: A First Attempt", J.G. Hook in LNCS 173, Springer

RUTH - Harrison <>. Real-time language based on LispKit. Uses timestamps and real-time clocks. "RUTH: A Functional Language for Real-Time Programming", D. Harrison in PARLE: Parallel Architectures and Languages Europe, LNCS 259, Springer 1987, pp.297-314.