Programming Languages - T

Sample Program

T -

1. True. Rees, 1982. LISP dialect with static scope, a near-superset of Scheme. "The T Manual", Johnathan A. Rees <> et al, Yale U, 1984. Maintained by David Kranz <>. Unix source

2. Functional. "T: A Simple Reduction Language Based on Combinatory Term Rewriting", Ida et al, Proc of Prog Future Generation Computers, 1988.

TABLET - Query language. "Human Factor Comparison of a Procedural and a Non-procedural Query Language", C. Welty et al, ACM Trans Database Sys 6(4):626-649 (Dec 1981).

TABSOL - T.F. Kavanaugh. Early system oriented language. Proc FJCC 18:117-136, AFIPS (Fall 1960). (See GECOM).

TAC - Translator Assembler-Compiler. For Philco 2000.

TACL - Tandem Advanced Command Language. Tandem, about 1987. The shell language used in Tandem computers.

TACPOL - PL/I-like language used by US Army for command and control.

TAL - Tandem Application Language. A cross between C and Pascal. Primary system programming language on Tandem computers. (Tandem has no assembler and until recently did not have C or Pascal.) Derived from SPL[3]? (see microTAL).

TALE - Typed Applicative Language Experiment. M. van Leeuwen. Lazy, purely applicative, polymorphic. Based on typed second order lambda calculus. "Functional Programming and the Language TALE", H.P. Barendregt et al, in Current Trends in Concurrency, LNCS 224, Springer 1986, pp.122- 207.

TALL - TAC List Language. "TALL - A List Processor for the Philco 2000", J. Feldman, CACM 5(9):484-485 (Sep 1962).


1. Lisp dialect with concurrency, object-orientation and logic. "Concurrent Programming in TAO - Practice and Experience", I. Takeuchi in Parallel Lisp: Languages and Systems, T. Ito et al eds, LNCS 441, Springer 1989, pp.271-299.

2. (Formerly APESE) The language of the APE100 SIMD machine.

TARTAN - A simpler proposed language to meet the Ironman requirements. "TARTAN - Language Design for the Ironman Requirements: Reference Manual", Mary Shaw et al, SIGPLAN Notices 13(9):36-58 (Sep 1978).

TASM - Turbo Assembler. MS-DOS assembler from Borland.

TASS - Template ASSembly language. Intermediate language produced by the Manchester SISAL compiler.

TAWK - Tiny AWK.

Taxis - "A Language Facility for Designing Database-Intensive Applications", J. Mylopoulos et al, ACM Trans Database Sys 5(2):185-207 (June 1980).

TBIL - Tiny Basic Interpreter Language. Inner interpreter of Tom Pittman's set of Tiny Basics in Dr Dobb's J.

Tbl -

1. M.E. Lesk. Language for formatting tables, a preprocessor to nroff.

2. Table Building Language. Robt. Freiburghouse, MIT. Simple language which combines user-defined actions into an abstract machine. Used to build table-driven predictive parsers and code generators in the MULTICS Fortran compiler and several PL/I compilers, including VAX-11 PL/I. "Engineering A Compiler: VAX-11 Code Generation and Optimization", P. Anklam et al, Digital Press 1977.

Tcl -

1. ("tickle") Tool Command Language. John Ousterhout, UCB. <> A string language for issuing commands to interactive programs. Each application can extend tcl with its own set of commands. "Tcl: An Embeddable Command Language", J. Ousterhout, Proc 1990 Winter USENIX Conf.

2. Terminal Control Language. The command language used in the Pick OS. "Exploring the Pick Operating System", J.E. Sisk et al, Hayden 1986.

3. Tymshare Conversational Language. "Interactive Languages: Design Criteria and a Proposal", R.K. Moore et al, Proc FJCC 33(1) (1968).

Tcode - Intermediate language used by the Spineless Tagless G-machine (an abstract machine based on graph reduction) designed as a target for compilation of non-strict functional languages. "The Spineless tagless G- machine", S. Peyton Jones et al, Fourth Intl Conf Func Prog Langs and Comp Arch pp.184-201, ACM Sept 1989.

TCOL - CMU. Tree-based intermediate representation produced by the PQCC compiler generator. "An Overview of the Production Quality Compiler- Compiler Projects", B.W. Leverett et al, IEEE Computer 13(8): 38-49 (Aug 1980). (See LG).

TCOL.Ada - CMU, 1980. An intermediate representation for Ada, was merged with AIDA to form Diana. "TCOL.Ada: Revised Report on an Intermediate Representation for the DOD Standard Programming Language", J.M. Newcomer et al, CMU-CS-79-128 (June 1979).

tcsh - Command language for Unix, a dialect of csh.

Tcsim - Time (Complex) Simulator. Complex arithmetic version of Tsim. ZOLA Technologies,

TDF - Intermediate language, a close relative of ANDF. A TDF program is an ASCII stream describing an abstract syntax tree. "TDF Specification", Defence Research Agency/Electronics Division, Malvern UK, +44 684 895314. info: Nic Peeling <>

TDFL - Dataflow language. "TDFL: A Task-Level Dataflow Language", P. Suhler et al, J Parallel Dist Comp 9(2):103-115 (Jun 1990).

TECO - Text Editor and COrrector. (Originally "Tape Editor and COrrector"). Macro language for text editing, screen handling and keyboard management. Has a reputation for being cryptic and hard to learn. (TECO programs are said to resemble line noise.) The first EMACS editor was written in TECO., for VAX/VMS, Unix, MS-DOS, Mac, Amiga

TELCOMP - Variant of JOSS. Sammet 1969, p.217.

Telescript - General Magic. [?]

Telon - by Panasophic [?]


1. The EuLisp Object System. The object-oriented core of EuLisp. Incorporates ideas from CLOS, ObjVLisp and OakLisp. Total merging of types with classes, and message-passing with normal function application. (See EuLisp).

2. Pascal-based AI language. "Design Rationale for TELOS, a Pascal-based AI Language", Travis et al, SIGPLAN Notices 12(8) (Aug 1977).

TELSIM - Busch, ca 1966. Digital simulation. Sammet 1969, p.627.

TempLog - A clausal subset of first-order temporal logic, with discrete time. "Temporal Logic in Programming", M. Abadi et al, INtl Symp Logic Prog pp.4-16 (1987).

TEMPO - Simple syntax and semantics. Designed for teaching semantic and pragmatic aspects of programming languages. "TEMPO: A Unified Treatment of Binding Time and Parameter Passing Concepts in Programming Languages", N.D. Jones et al, LNCS 66, Springer 1978.

Tempura - Language based on temporal logic. "Executing Temporal Logic Programs", B. Moszkowski, Camb U Press 1986.

Ten15 - A universal intermediate language, redecessor to TDF. Polymorphic? "Ten15: An Overview", P. Core et al, Royal Signals Radar Establishment TR 3977 (Sept 1986).

TERMAC - Interactive matrix language. "Users Guide to TERMAC", J.S. Miller et al, MIT Dec 1968.

Terse - Language for decryption of hardware logic. "Hardware Logic Simulation by Compilation", C. Hansen, 25th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conf, 1988.

TeX - Donald Knuth, 1978. Language for formatting and typesetting text, especially mathematical formulas. Macro extensible. Version 3.0, March 1990. TeX-78 - An old (incompatible) version of TeX. TeX-82 - The version of TeX described in The TeXbook, Donald Knuth, A-W 1984. Well-known extensions to TeX: LaTeX - Lamport TEX. Incorporates document styles. "LaTeX, A Document Preparation System", Leslie Lamport <>, A-W 1986. MuTeX - for typesetting music. PiCTeX - for pictures. SliTeX - for slide preparation. Distributed with LaTeX.

TFDL - "TFDL : A Task-level Dataflow Language", P.A. Suhler et al, J Parallel and Distrib Comput 9:103-115 (1990).

TGS-II - Translator Generator System. Contained TRANDIR. Sammet 1969, p.640.

THEO - Frame language. "Theo: A Framework for Self-Improving Systems", Mitchell et al, in Architectures for Intelligence, K. VanLehn ed, Erlbaum, 1989.

Theseus - Based on Euclid, never implemented. "Theseus - A Programming Language for Relational Databases", J.E. Shopiro, ACM Trans Database Sys 4(4):493-517 (Mar 1979).

ThingLab - Simulation system written in Smalltalk-80. Solves constraints using value inference. "The Programming Language Aspects of ThingLab, A Constraint-Oriented Simulation Laboratory", A. Borning, ACM TOPLAS 3(4):353-387 (Oct 1981). Version: ThingLab II.

Tinman - HOLWG, DoD, Jan 1976. Third of the series of DoD requirements that led to Ada. (See Strawman, Woodenman, Ironman, Steelman).

tinman+ - Macro language for Apple ][? Published in DDJ?

TINT - Interpreted version of JOVIAL. Sammet 1969, p.528.

Tiny - Concurrency through message-passing to named message queues.

TIP - Texas Instruments Pascal.


1. Teach IPL. Interpretive IPL teaching system. Sammet 1969, p.393.

2. Dialect of IGL.[?]

TK!Solver - Software Arts 1983. Numerical constraint-oriented language. "The TK!Solver Book", M. Konopasek et al, McGraw-Hill 1984.

TL0 - Thread Language Zero. The instruction set of the TAM (Threaded Abstract Machine), used to implement Id. "Fine-grain Parallelism with Minimal Hardware Support", David Culler et al, SIGPLAN Notices 26(4):164- 175 (ASPLOS-IV Proc) (Apr 1991).

TL1 - Transaction Language 1. Bellcore. A subset of CCITT's MML with simpler syntax. Similar to USL[2]. For use in communications between telephone operating systems and remote network test equipment. OTGR, TR- TSY-000439, section 12, Bellcore. (1-800-521-CORE)

TL/I - An intermediate language for Turing machines. "Examples of Formal Semantics", D. Knuth in Symp on Semantics of Algorithmic Languages, E. Engeler ed, LNM 188, Springer 1971, pp.212-235.

TMDL - Target-Machine Description Language. Machine-description language used in the Graham-Glanville code generator. "Table-Driven Code Generation", S.L. Graham, IEEE Computer 13(8):25-34 (Aug 1980).

TMG - TransMoGrifier. Early language for writing recursive descent compilers. Macro'd from the IBM 1604 to the 709 to the 7094 to the GE635, where it was used by McIlroy and Morris to write the EPL compiler for Multics. "TMG - A Syntax-Directed Compiler", R.M. McClure, Proc ACM 20th Natl Conf (1965). Sammet 1969, p.636.

TOK - Referred to in Ursula K. LeGuin's "Always Coming Home." Seems to be similar to the original BASIC.

Toronto Euclid - The standard dialect of Euclid, as compared to Ottawa Euclid.

TPL - 1. Table Producing Language. "The Bureau of Labor Statistics Table Producing Language (TPL)", R.C. Mendelssohn, Proc ACM Annual Conf (1974).

2. Fleming Nielson. Concurrent, functional. [?]

3. Terminal Programming Language. Texas Inst, late 70's. Used on the TI-990/1 Small Business Computer and the TI-771 Intelligent Terminal.

TPS - Tree Pruning System. "An Adaptive Tree Pruning System: A Language for Programming Heuristic Tree Searches", E.W. Kozdrowicki, Proc ACM 23rd Natl Conf 1968.

TPU - Text Processing Utility. DEC. Language for creation of text- processing interfaces, used to implement DEC's Extensible VAX Editor (EVE).

TRAC - Text Reckoning And Compiling. Calvin N. Mooers and Peter Deutsch <Deutsch@SMLI.Eng.Sun.Com>. An interactive macrogenerator language for string manipulation. Derived ideas from Macro SAP. "TRAC: A Procedure- Describing Language for the Reactive Typewriter", Calvin N. Mooers, CACM 9(3):215-219 (Mar 1966). Rockford Research Inst, 1972. Sammet 1969, pp.448-454. Macro Processors, A.J. Cole, Cambridge U Press. Versions for PDP-1, PDP-8, PDP-10, PDP-11 (See MINT, SAM76) info: Preston Briggs <> Implementation in Perl

Trafola-H - A specification language for program transformations. Functional, statically typed, polymorphic, with extended constructs for pattern-matching. "Trafola-H Reference Manual", R. Heckmann et al, U Saarlandes, Saarbrucken 1991.

Traits - Early object-oriented language. Supported multiple inheritance and overriding of operations. "Traits: An Approach to Multiple-Inheritance Subclassing", G. CUrry er al, ACM SIGOA Conf on Office Automation Systems, 1982.

TRANDIR - TRANslation DIRector. A language for syntax-directed compiling. Sammet 1969, p.640.

TRANQUIL - 1966. ALGOL-like language with sets and other extensions, for the Illiac IV. "TRANQUIL: A Language for an Array Processing Computer", N.E. Abel et al, Proc SJCC 34 (1969).

TRANS - TRAffic Network Simulation Language. "A Model for Traffic Simulation and a Simulation Language for the General Transportation Problem", Proc FJCC 37 (1970).

TRANS-USE - Early system on IBM 1103 or 1103A. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

TRANSCODE - Early system on Ferut computer. Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

TRANSIT - Subsystem of ICES. Sammet 1969, p.616.

TRANSLANG - A microassembly language for the Burroughs D Machine.

TREET - E.C. Haines, 1964. An experimental variant of LISP1.5, implemented on the STRETCH computer. Basic structure was a trinary tree. "The TREET Time-Sharing System", H.A. Bayard et al, Proc 2nd Symp Symb and Alg Manip, ACM (Mar 1971). Sammet 1969, pp.457-461.

TREETRAN - FORTRAN IV subroutine package for tree manipulation.

Trellis - (formerly named OWL). DEC. Object-oriented, with static type- checking and encapsulation. "An Introduction to Trellis/OWL", C. Schaffert et al, OOPSLA 1986. "Trellis Object-Based Environment Language Reference Manual", C. Schaffert et al, DEC-TR-372, DEC OSG, Hudson, MA (Nov 1985). info: Jerry Smith <>* TNT system info:

TRIGMAN - Symbolic math, especially Celestial Mechanics.

Trilogy - Paul Voda <voda@mff.uniba.cs>, UBC, 1988. Logic programming language with numerical constraint-solving over the natural numbers. Syntactically a blend of Prolog, LISP and Pascal. Contains three types of clauses: predicates (backtracking but no assignable variables), procedures (if-then-else but no backtracking; assignable variables), and subroutines (like procedures, but with input and system calls; callable only from top level or from other subroutines). "The Constraint Language Trilogy: Semantics and Computations", P. Voda <>, Complete Logic Systems, 741 Blueridge Ave, North Vancouver BC, V7R 2J5. Papers by Voda, and BYTE review.[?]

TRIX - Language for a family of line-oriented text editors used on CDC 7600 and CRAY machines under LTSS at Lawrence Livermore. Derived from TRAC.

Troff - Text formatting language/interpreter, a variant of Unix roff. (See groff, nroff, RUNOFF).

TROLL - Array language for continuous simulation, econometric modeling, statistical analysis. "TROLL Reference Manual", D0062, Info Proc Services, MIT (1973-76).

True BASIC - John Kemeny & Thomas E. Kurtz. A compiled BASIC requiring no line numbers.

TS - Typed Smalltalk. Ralph Johnson, U Illinois <>. "TS: An Optimizing Compiler for Smalltalk", R.E. Johnson et al, SIGPLAN Notices 23(11) (Nov 1988).

Tsim - Time Simulator. Stack-based simulation language. ZOLA Technologies,

TSL-1 - Task Sequencing Language. Language for specifying sequences of tasking events in Ada programs. "Task Sequencing Language for Specifying Distributed Ada Systems", D.C. Luckham et al in PARLE: Parallel Architectures and Langs Europe, LNCS 259, Springer 1987, pp.444-463.

Tui - Functional. "Tui Language Manual", B. Boutel, TR CSD-8-021, Victoria U of Wellington, 1988.

Tuki - An intermediate code for functional languages. "Another Implementation Technique for Applicative Languages", H. Glaser et al, ESOP86, LNCS 213, Springer 1986.

TUPLE - Toyohashi University Parallel Lisp Environment. A parallel Lisp based on KCL. "Memory Management and Garbage Collection of an Extended Common Lisp System for Massively Parallel SIMD Architecture", Taiichi Yuasa, in Memory Management, IWMM92, Springer 1992, 490-507.

Tuple Space Smalltalk - "Using Tuple Space Communication in Distributed Object-Oriented Languages", S. Matsuoka et al, SIGPLAN Notices 23(11):276- 284 (Nov 1988).

Turbo Pascal - Borland Intl's Pascal. Perhaps the first integrated development environment for MS-DOS. Versions 1.0-3.0: standard Pascal with a few extensions Versions 4.0 (1987) and 5.0: separate compilation Version 5.5: object-oriented facilities Version 6.0: Turbo Vision OOP library

Turbo Prolog - 1986. A Prolog-like language with strong typing and user- defined domains. Programs are arranged in sections: DOMAINS, CLAUSES, PREDICATES, DATABASE and GOAL. Currently known as PDC Prolog, and distributed by Prolog Development Center, Atlanta (404)873-1366 <>?

Turing - R.C. Holt <> & J.R. Cordy <>, U Toronto, 1982. Descendant of Concurrent Euclid, an airtight super-Pascal. Used mainly for teaching programming at both high school and university level. "Turing Language Report", R.C. Holt & J.R. Cordy, Report CSRI-153, CSRI, U Toronto, Dec 1983. "The Turing Programming Language", R.C. Holt & J.R. Cordy, CACM 31(12) (Dec 1988). Available from Holt Software Assocs, Toronto. Versions for Sun, MS-DOS, Mac, etc. info: <>

Turing Plus - Systems programming language, a concurrent descendant of Turing. "The Turing Plus Report", R.C. Holt & J.R. Cordy, CSRI, U Toronto, Feb 1987. Available from Holt Software Assocs, Toronto <>.

Turingol - D. Knuth. High-level language for programming Turing machines? Subject of the first construction of a nontrivial attribute grammar. "Semantics of Context-Free Languages", D. Knuth, Math Sys Thy 2:127-145 (1975).

TUTOR - Scripting language on PLATO systems from CDC. "The TUTOR Language", Bruce Sherwood, Control Data, 1977.

Twentel - Functional. "The TWENTEL System (Version 1).", H. Kroeze, CS Dept TR, U Twente, 1986.

TWIG - Tree-Walking Instruction Generator. A code-generator language. "Twig Language Manual", S.W.K. Tijang, CS TR 120, Bell Labs, 1986. A variant, ML-Twig in SML by Jussi Rintanen <> comes with SML/NJ.

TXL - Tree Transformation Language. J.R. Cordy et al, Queens U, Canada, 1988. A hybrid functional/rule-based language with unification, implied iteration and deep pattern match. Intended for source-to-source translation and program transformation tasks. "TXL: A Rapid Prototyping System for Programming Language Dialects", J.R. Cordy et al, Comp Langs 16(1) (Jan 1991). "Specification and Automatic Prototype Implementation of Polymorphic Objects in Turing Using the TXL Dialect Processor", J.R. Cordy & E.M. Promislow, Proc IEEE Intl Conf on Comp Lang ICCL'90 (Mar 1990).* Version 7.4, source in ANSI C

TYPOL - A specialized logic programming language. "TYPOL: A Formalism to Implement Natural Semantics", T. Despeyroux, RR 94, INRIA, 1988.