Programming Languages - Z

Sample Program

Z -

1. ("zed") Programming Research Group, Oxford U, ca 1980. A specification language based on axiomatic set theory and first order predicate logic. Uses many non-ASCII symbols. Used in the IBM CICS project? "Understanding Z", J.M. Spivey, Cambridge U Press 1988. An embedding of Z in HOL available from ICL <>

2. A stack-based, complex arithmetic simulation language. ZOLA Technologies,

Z++ - Object-oriented extension of Z. "Z++, an Object-Oriented Extension to Z", Lano, Z User Workshop, Oxford 1990, Springer Workshops in Computing, 1991, pp.151-172.

ZAP - Language for expressing transformational developments. "A System for Assisting Program Transformation", M.S. Feather, ACM TOPLAS 4(1):1-20 (Jan 1982).

Zed - 1978. Software Portability Group, U Waterloo. Eh, with types added. Similar to C. Implementation language for the Thoth realtime operating system. Added a few simple types for greater efficiency on byte-addressed machines. String constants in case statements. Enforces the naming convention: MANIFESTS, Externals and locals. "Porting the Zed Compiler", G.B. Bonkowski et al, SIGPLAN Notices 14(8):92-97 (Aug 1979).

ZENO - U Rochester 1978. Euclid with asynchronous message-passing. "Preliminary ZENO Language Description", J.E. Ball et al, SIGPLAN Notices 14(9):17-34 (Sep 1979).

ZERO - Object oriented extension of Z. "Object Orientation in Z", S. Stepney et al eds, Springer 1992.

ZEST - Object oriented extension of Z. "Object Orientation in Z", S. Stepney et al eds, Springer 1992.

ZetaLisp - Maclisp dialect used on the LISP Machine. The many extensions to Maclisp include vectors, closures, flavors, stack groups, locatives and invisible pointers. "LISP Machine Manual", D. Weinreb and D. Moon, MIT AI Lab, 1981.

ZIL - Zork Implementation Language. Language used by Infocom's Interactive Fiction adventure games. Interpreted by the zmachine, for Unix and Amiga.

Zipcode - [?] Parallel language at Lawrence Livermore?

zsh - Sh with list processing and database enhancements.

ZOPL - Geac. [?] A low-level Pascal?

ZUG - Geac. [?] A low-level Awk?

Zuse - (named for Konrad Zuse, the designer of the first modern programming language Plankalkul.) Christian Collberg <>, PhD thesis 1991. A descendant of Ada, Modula-2, Mesa and Oberon-1 supporting several levels of information hiding. The Zuse type system includes fully hidden types (similar to Modula-2 opaque types but without any implementation restriction), semi-open pointer types (same as Modula-2 opaque types), extensible record types (similar to Oberon-1 public projection types but without the compiler hint), enumeration types, extensible enumeration types, and extensible subrange types. A type can also be protected by specifying the operations that particular modules may perform (similar to C++ friend classes and Ada private types). Zuse also includes hidden and extensible constants and hidden inline procedures. In order to support the higher levels of information hiding the implementation employs partial intermediate code linking. Version for Sun-3.

Zz - An extensible language.